In English

Resursbegränsningar för elektrobränslen i ett framtida globalt koldioxidneutralt energisystem

Kristoffer Fürst ; Petra Holmér ; Erik Lindén ; Herman Lundberg ; Johanna Olovsson
Göteborg : Chalmers tekniska högskola, 2016. 86 s.
[Examensarbete för kandidatexamen]

Electrofuels is an umbrella term for all carbon based fuels produced by water, carbon dioxide and electricity. If the electricity and carbon dioxide is collected from renewable sources, the fuels become carbon dioxide neutral. Examples of electrofuels are synthetically produced methane, methanol and diesel. The aim of this project is to find out if a global transition to a carbon neutral energy system with electrofuels as the main energy carrier in transports is achievable by 2100 with respect to resources. The production of fuel and renewable electricity from wind and solar power has been studied to identify possible resource constraints. The method used is a literature review which involves collection and compilation of information to answer the questions of the project. Based on the predicted future energy demand, the material and resource needs have been estimated for the production processes; fuel synthesis, electrolysis, carbon capture and electricity generation. Most of the studied technologies are used commercially today. However, carbon capture from air and SOEC-electrolysis, two technologies that currently are in the research stage, have been included since they may contribute to making the production more efficient in the future. The result shows that, with respect to the technologies and materials that have been studied, it can be possible to produce the amount of electrofuels required for a future global energy system. At a large scale, some of the technologies, such as PEM-electrolysis and thin-film solar cells will run into resource constraints. Due to this, these will probably not be able to contribute with a significant part of the total production. Based on the result, it is also clear that platinum-group metals and rare earth metals will be critical for the production of electrofuels using the technologies that have been studied. However, there are usually many alternative materials and technologies available. The conclusion is that with the right combination of technologies, the right mate-rial choices and further research and development, it will be possible to produce electrofuels on a large scale. However, there may be many practical problems, since economical and social aspects have not been examined in this report.

Nyckelord: Electrofuels, energy system, resource constraints, renewable, electricity, fuel synthesis, electrolysis, carbon capture, materials, literature review.



Publikationen registrerades 2016-12-21. Den ändrades senast 2016-12-21

CPL ID: 246447

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