In English

Energy Demands of European Buildings: A Mapping of Available Data, Indicators and Models

Eoin Ó Broin
Göteborg : Chalmers tekniska högskola, 2007. 205 s. Examensarbete. T - Institutionen för energi och miljö, Avdelningen för energiteknik, Chalmers tekniska högskola, ISSN 9897232; T2007-307, 2007.
[Examensarbete på avancerad nivå]

This report has sought to undertake an investigation into data, indicators and models available for describing energy demand in Europe’s buildings. The work has been carried out as part requirement of Work Package 4, Best Available Technology assessment (WP4), of the Pathways to a Sustainable European Energy System Project. The first part of the report reviews pan-European sources of data on construction characteristics, energy end uses, installed energy-using apparatus, building envelope characteristics and energy carrier mixes for the European building stock. The second part of the report investigates various approaches to the use of indicators for analysing and explaining the causes of energy use in the European building stock. The third part of the report uses information from the first two parts of the report to undertake an analysis of energy use in Residential and Services Sector buildings of the EU 25 from 1990 to 2004. The fourth and final part of the report discusses options available for forecasting energy use in the European building stock over the coming decades based on the expected improvements in energy and building construction technologies, and the influence of other non – technical factors. Findings from the review of pan-European sources of data were aggregated for the entire building stock of each country, and also per dwelling type in the Residential Sector and per branch type in the Service Sector. These aggregations were subdivided into two data categories, focusing on either building design characteristics and energy end-use data or on energy-using apparatus installed, building thermal transmittance characteristics and energy carrier mix. The former category is considered to provide data for a top-down statistical analysis of building energy use, while the latter is useful in providing an itinerary of energy carriers and energy-using apparatus that can be substituted in efforts to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. For the residential sector, it was possible to acquire sufficient data to undertake a time series or single-year analysis of trends in building energy use for five EU countries on a per dwelling type, and for ten countries at an aggregated sectoral level. There was insufficient data available for undertaking a technology and energy carrier substitution exercise for any country. For the service sector, it was possible to acquire sufficient data to undertake a single-year analysis of buildings energy use for five EU countries at a branch level, and for eleven countries at an aggregated sectoral level. For a technology and energy carrier substitution exercise, data was found to be available for three EU countries on a branch level and for four countries at an aggregated sectoral level. There was insufficient data to describe any non–EU countries to the level desired. Two exercises were performed to estimate missing data: one for heating systems installed in buildings, and another to estimate typical dwellings which represent the design characteristics of the stock as a whole. The usefulness of indicators for the purposes of explaining why energy use is changing was explored and a set of indicators that could be used to display the various reasons why energy use is changing was proposed. The analysis of energy use in buildings from 1990 to 2004 showed space heating and the fast-rising consumption of energy for water heating and electrical appliances to be significant for the residential sector. For the service sector, the large increases in electricity consumption over the same time period were highlighted. The analysis also attempted to highlight the influence of non-technical parameters such as population and economic growth on energy consumption in both the residential and service sectors. The final chapter proposed a step-by-step approach to an analysis and forecasting exercise of future energy use in Europe’s buildings that could be undertaken using data, indicators and models.

Nyckelord: indicators, energy demand, Best Available Technology assessment, Pathways to a Sustainable European Energy System Project



Publikationen registrerades 2011-02-02. Den ändrades senast 2013-04-04

CPL ID: 136409

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